Basic Body Structure and Organization
Many societies have a system for organ donation , in which a living or deceased donor's organ is transplanted into a person with a failing organ. The transplantation of larger solid organs often requires immunosuppression to prevent organ rejection or graft-versus-host disease. There is considerable interest throughout the world in creating laboratory-grown or artificial organs. Organ-on-a-chip is being developed in various research centers, including the Wyss Institute at Harvard Medical School in Boston.
The English word "organ" dates back to the twelfth century, in reference to any musical instrument. By the late 14th century, the musical term's meaning had narrowed to refer specifically to the keyboard-based instrument. At the same time, a second meaning arose, in reference to a "body part adapted to a certain function".
Plant organs are made from tissue composed of different types of tissue. The three tissue types are ground, vascular, and dermal. The adjective visceral , also splanchnic , is used for anything pertaining to the internal organs. Historically, viscera of animals were examined by Roman pagan priests like the haruspices or the augurs in order to divine the future by their shape, dimensions or other factors. The term "visceral" is contrasted with the term " parietal ", meaning "of or relating to the wall of a body part, organ or cavity "  The two terms are often used in describing a membrane or piece of connective tissue, referring to the opposing sides.
Aristotle used the word frequently in his philosophy, both to describe the organs of plants or animals e. Some alchemists e. Paracelsus adopted the Hermetic Qabalah assignment between the seven vital organs and the seven classical planets as follows: .
The Human Organ Systems
The variations in natural language definitions of what constitutes an organ, their degree of precision, and the variations in how they map to ontologies and taxonomies in information science for example, to count how many organs exist in a typical human body are topics explored by writer Carl Engelking of Discover magazine in as he analyzed the science journalism coverage of the evolving scientific understanding of the mesentery.
For example, the fact that the tissues of the mesentery are continuous was something that was simply not known for sure until it was demonstrated with microscopy. However, one of the points made by an anatomist interviewed by Engelking is that, finality aside, much more could be done even now to represent existing human knowledge more clearly for computing purposes.
Beginning in the 20th century  transplants began to occur as scientists knew more about the anatomy of organs. These came later in time as procedures were often dangerous and difficult. This situation continues as long as transplantation relies upon organ donors rather than technological innovation, testing, and industrial manufacturing. The organ level of organisation in animals can be first detected in flatworms and the more derived phyla. The less-advanced taxa like Placozoa , Sponges and Radiata do not show consolidation of their tissues into organs.
More complex animals are composed of different organs, which have been evolving over time. For example, the liver evolved in the stem vertebrates more than million years ago, while the gut and brain are even more ancient, arising in the ancestor of vertebrates, insects, and worms more than million years ago. Given the ancient origin of most vertebrate organs, researchers have looked for model systems, where organs have evolved more recently, and ideally have evolved multiple times independently. An outstanding model for this kind of research is the placenta , which has evolved more than times independently in vertebrates, has evolved relatively recently in some lineages, and exists in intermediate forms in extant taxa.
Organ Systems of Human Body
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Organ and Viscera disambiguation. Collection of tissues with similar functions. Many of the internal organs of the human body. Main article: Biological system. See also: List of organs of the human body. See also: Plant anatomy. This section needs expansion.
You can help by adding to it. February We refer to an integrated unit as an organ system. Groups of organ systems work together to make complete, functional organisms, like us! There are 11 major organ systems in the human body. The circulatory system is a body-wide network of blood, blood vessels, and lymph. Read more.
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Every tissue within the body requires oxygen to function. The respiratory system , which includes air passages, pulmonary vessels, the lungs, and breathing muscles, provides oxygenated blood to the body tissues and removes waste gases. The digestive system enables your body to convert food into usable nutrients through a chemical breakdown process.
This occurs through a system of tube-like of organs, including the esophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, and intestines.
The skeletal system gives the body its basic framework, providing structure, protection, and movement. The bones in the body also produce blood cells, store important minerals, and release hormones necessary to life. The muscular system is comprised of the sum total of muscles throughout the body that move the skeleton, maintain posture through steady contraction, and generate heat through cell metabolism. Humans have three types of muscle.
The nervous system allows us to perceive, comprehend, and respond to the world around us. The female reproductive system encompasses all necessary female organs needed to conceive and bear a child. The male reproductive system consists of a series of organs used during sexual intercourse and procreation.
The kidneys also produce an enzyme called renin and a variety of hormones. These substances help regulate blood pressure, the production of red blood cells, and the balance of calcium and phosphorus in the body. Organs and other structures of the respiratory system include the nasal passages, lungs, and a long tube called the trachea, which carries air between the nasal passages and lungs. The main function of the respiratory system is to deliver oxygen to the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the body.
Gases are exchanged between the lungs and blood across the walls of capillaries lining tiny air sacs alveoli in the lungs. The lymphatic system is sometimes considered to be part of the immune system.
It consists of a network of lymph vessels and ducts that collect excess fluid called lymph from extracellular spaces in tissues and transport the fluid to the bloodstream. The lymphatic system also includes many small collections of tissue, called lymph nodes, and an organ called the spleen, both of which remove pathogens and cellular debris from the lymph or blood.
File:Surface projections of the organs of the reonfultapde.tk - Wikimedia Commons
In addition, the thymus gland in the lymphatic system produces some types of white blood cells lymphocytes that fight infections. The digestive system consists of several main organs — including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and small and large intestines — that form a long tube called the gastrointestinal GI tract.
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Food moves through this tract where it is digested, its nutrients absorbed, and its waste products excreted. The digestive system also includes accessory organs such as the pancreas and liver that produce enzymes and other substances needed for digestion but through which food does not actually pass. The reproductive system is the only body system that differs substantially between males and females. Both male and female reproductive systems produce sex-specific sex hormones testosterone in males, estrogen in females and gametes sperm in males, eggs in females.
However, the organs involved in these processes are different. The male reproductive system includes the epididymis, testes, and penis; and the female reproductive system includes the uterus, ovaries, and mammary glands. The male and female systems also have different additional roles.
For example, the male system has the role of delivering gametes to the female reproductive tract, whereas the female system has the roles of supporting an embryo and fetus until birth and also producing milk for the infant after birth. However, you may have never heard of a penis transplant.
The first U. The hour procedure involved a team of more than 50 physicians, surgeons, and nurses. The patient was a year-old man who had lost his penis to cancer in The surgical milestone involved grafting microscopic blood vessels and nerves of the donor organ to those of the recipient. As with most transplant patients, this patient will have to take immunosuppressing drugs for the rest of his life so his immune system will not reject the organ.
Professor Anthony Atala is working to answer an important question: Can we grow new replacement organs rather than transplanting organs from other people? In his state-of-the-art lab, he and his associates are actually growing human organs, including blood vessels, bladders, and kidneys. Watch the fascinating TED talk below to see how they are doing it. Human Organs An organ is a collection of tissues joined in a structural unit to serve a common function. Vital Organs The human body contains five organs that are considered vital for survival.
The heart is located in the center of the chest, and its function is to keep blood flowing through the body. Blood carries substances to cells that they need and also carries away wastes from cells. It is the seat of all thoughts, memories, perceptions, and feelings. The two kidneys are located in the back of the abdomen on either side of the body. Their function is to filter blood and form urine, which is excreted from the body. The liver is located on the right side of the abdomen.
It has many functions, including filtering blood, secreting bile that is needed for digestion, and producing proteins necessary for blood clotting. The two lungs are located on either side of the upper chest.